The difference between the right word and the almost right word is the difference between lightning and a lightning bug. Add citations directly into your paper, Check for unintentional plagiarism and check for writing mistakes. Need to save your citations for later? Uic online thesis submission uses microbial metabolism in the presence of optimum environmental conditions and sufficient nutrients to breakdown contaminants notably petroleum hydrocarbons.
We reviewed technologies for carrying out bioremediation and observed that biotechnological approaches that are designed to carry out remediation have received a great deal of attention in recent years. Bioremediation, Biostimulation and Bioaugmention: A Review. Adams, Godleads Omokhagbor, Prekeyi Tawari Fufeyin, Samson Eruke Okoro, and Igelenyah Ehinomen. In all continents, oil exploration and use threatens the health of the environment and living creatures including humans. An oil spill is the release of a petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment.
Crude oil and refined fuel spills have damaged natural ecosystems in Alaska, the Gulf of Mexico, the Galapagos Islands, France, the Niger Delta region in Nigeria and many other places worldwide. The effects of oil contamination are enormous. Oil penetrates into the structure of the plumage of birds and the fur of mammals, reducing their insulating ability, and making them more vulnerable to temperature fluctuations and much less buoyant in water. Animals that rely on scent to find their babies or mothers fade away due to the strong scent of the oil. For humans an oil spill can represent an immediate fire hazard. The Kuwaiti oil fires produced air pollution that caused respiratory distress.
The Deepwater Horizon explosion killed eleven oil rig workers. Spilled oil can also contaminate drinking water supplies. Eighty thousand people in Coca, Ecuador. Contamination can have an economic impact on tourism and marine resource extraction industries. The challenge facing scientists and industrialists alike today is tackling this problem of environmental degradation in a safe, environmentally sound manner with rational cost implications. A technology that has been intensively studied is bioremediation. He used microbes to consume an oil spill along the coast of Santa Barbara, California in the late 1960s.
Bioremediation technology uses microorganisms to reduce, eliminate, contain, or transform to benign contaminants present in soils, sediments, water, and air. For centuries, civilizations have used natural bioremediation in wastewater treatment, but intentional use for the reduction of hazardous wastes is a more recent development. Bioremediation involves the production of energy in a redox reaction within microbial cells. These reactions include respiration and other biological functions needed for cell maintenance and reproduction. Contaminant concentrations: Directly influence microbial activity.