Citing References in Scientific Research Papers Compiled by Timothy T. This paper greatly expands upon a handout originally prepared by an unknown author for citing websites in research papers to students in introductory earth science courses at Dartmouth College.
CBE style” to cite and document online sources. Thus, clearly, you need to cite sources for all direct quotations. All different kinds of sources must be acknowledged. Furthermore, if you use figures, illustrations, or graphical material, either directly or in modified form, that you did not yourself create or design, you need to acknowledge the sources of those figures. Appalachian mountains were formed in three events. All the climaxes produced mountainous islands or highlands that shed vast amounts of debris westward to form clastic wedges or delta complexes on the continental margin. You only need to include the page number in the citation if you are quoting directly, or if the source is very long and the specific fact or idea you are citing can only be found on a specific page.
If you have more than one source by the same author published in the same year, distinguish them both in the in-text citation and in the reference list, by appending the letters a, b, c to the year, in the order in which the different references appear in your paper. Such a source would be omitted from your References Cited or Bibliography section. Details of Formatting Reference Lists Your list of References Cited should include all of the references you cited in your paper, and no more! It should be arranged in alphabetical order by the last name of the first author. For Books List all authors by last name and initials, separated by commas if there are more than two authors. Put an “and” before the last author in the list.
1983, Hen’s Teeth and Horse’s Toes, W. Norton, New York City, 413 p. Using CBE Style to Cite and Document Sources. Council of Biology Editors, 1994, Scientific style and format: the CBE manual for authors, editors, and publishers, 6th edition, Cambridge University Press, New York. 1991, Suggestions to authors of the reports of the United States Geological Survey, 7th edition, U.
Plagiarism: How to Define it, Recognize It, and Avoid Doing it. To avoid PLAGIARISM: While a bibliography does not prevent plagiarism, it is an important tool in avoiding plagiarism. BUILDING on research: Pertinent information is gleaned from the ideas of those who came before, and a researcher then produces new knowledge by integrating the ideas of others with her own conclusions. This is the scholarly research process. This is the basis for all scholarship. It is important that researchers give credit so readers can trace the ideas presented back to the sources. CONTRIBUTING ideas: Your contribution, as a student, to disciplinary knowledge is the unique ways you interpret and synthesize the words, thoughts, and ideas of authorities.
In fact, giving credit to experts and authoritative sources gives your conclusions validity that cannot be achieved by simply stating one’s own opinions. LOCATING additional research: And that is another reason for citations: it allows readers to access the cited materials if they are performing research on that topic. Plagiarism is using the words, thoughts, or ideas of someone else without giving credit. Plagiarism can take many forms, and it can be intentional or accidental.
Along with using someone’s direct words without quotation marks and attribution, plagiarism includes using someone’s thoughts or ideas and representing them as one’s own. For example, if you were to change the wording of a passage, but not credit the source, you are plagiarizing as much as if you used the original words. This presents something of a conundrum: students are required to use the research and writing of others, but such use is limited. To ensure that you will give credit appropriately, begin by keeping your research materials organized. There are many note-taking systems available to assist you, but it is essential that you keep track of which ideas came from which sources. After finding good information from a reputable source, you must then integrate that information into your paper.